“Despite differences, ten challenges face the making disciplines. Common concerns and challenges are building bridges among design fields. These challenges bind the making disciplines together as a common research field.
The three performance challenges of making disciplines are that they:
- Act on the physical world.
- Address human needs.
- Generate the built environment
These problem areas involve four substantive challenges:
- Ambiguous boundaries between artefact, structure, and process.
- Large-scale social, economic, and industrial frames.
- A complex environment of needs, requirements, and constraints.
- Information content that often exceeds the value of physical substance.
- A complex environment in which many projects or products cross the boundaries of several organizations, stakeholder, producer, and user groups.
- Projects or products that must meet the expectations of many organizations, stakeholders, producers, and users.
- Different – and sometimes conflicting – demands at every level of production, distribution, reception, and control.”
Friedman, Ken, in Durling, David, ed. 2000. Doctoral education in design: foundations for the future. Stoke-on-Trent: Staffordshire University Press.